Yemen

 

North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border.

 

Geography:
Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 48 00 E
People:
Population: 24,771,809 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 5,285,218/female 5,094,736)

15-64 years: 54.4% (male 6,666,600/female 6,459,414)

65 years and over: 2.6% (male 298,175/female 329,349) (2011 est.)

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Yemen

conventional short form: Yemen

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah

local short form: Al Yaman

former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]

Government type: republic
Communications:
Telephones – main lines in use: 1.046 million (2009)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 11.085 million (2009)
Transportation:
Airports:  57 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 17

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2012)

Military:
Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Yemen Air Force (includes Air Defence Force; Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Yemeniya), Republican Guard Forces, Yemeni Special Operations Forces (YSOF) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: voluntary military service program authorized in 2001; 2-year service obligation (2006)

Economy:

Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab world, reported average annual growth in the range of 3-4% from 2000 through 2007. Its economic fortunes depend mostly on declining oil resources, but the country is trying to diversify its earnings. In 2006 Yemen began an economic reform program designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. As a result of the program, international donors pledged about $5 billion for development projects. In addition, Yemen has made some progress on reforms over the last year that will likely encourage foreign investment. Oil revenues probably increased in 2007 as a result of higher prices.

Transnational Issues:

Disputes – international: Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 179,845 (Somalia)

IDPs: at least 550,000 (Sa’ada conflict; clashes between AQAP and Government forces) (2012)