Puerto Rico


Populated for centuries by aboriginal peoples, the island was claimed by the Spanish Crown in 1493 following COLUMBUS’ second voyage to the Americas. In 1898, after 400 years of colonial rule that saw the indigenous population nearly exterminated and African slave labour introduced, Puerto Rico was ceded to the US as a result of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship in 1917. Popularly-elected governors have served since 1948. In 1952, a constitution was enacted providing for internal self government. In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998, voters chose not to alter the existing political status.


Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic
Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W
Population: 3,690,923 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.8% (male 383,748/female 367,484)

15-64 years: 66.1% (male 1,270,557/female 1,366,417)

65 years and over: 15.1% (male 258,570/female 342,357) (2011 est.)

Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

conventional short form: Puerto Rico

Dependency status: unincorporated, organized territory of the US with commonwealth status; policy relations between Puerto Rico and the US conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of the President
Telephones – main lines in use: 891,900 (2009)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 2.934 million (2009)
Airports: 29 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 17

over 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 5 (2012)

Military branches: no regular indigenous military forces; paramilitary National Guard, Police Force
Military – note: defence is the responsibility of the US


Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region. A diverse industrial sector has far surpassed agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income, with estimated arrivals of nearly 5 million tourists in 2004. Growth fell off in 2001-03, largely due to the slowdown in the US economy, recovered in 2004-05, but declined again in 2006-07.

Transnational Issues:

Increasing numbers of illegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage to Puerto Rico each year looking for work.