Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI’s election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president’s increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000.




Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates:

10 00 S, 76 00 W
Population: 29,549,517 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.5% (male 4,245,023/female 4,101,220)

15-64 years: 65.1% (male 9,316,128/female 9,722,258)

65 years and over: 6.4% (male 885,703/female 978,611) (2011 est.)

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Peru

conventional short form: Peru

local long form: Republica del Peru

local short form: Peru

Government type: constitutional republic
Telephones – main lines in use: 3.16 million (2009)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 29.115 million (2009)
Airports: 191 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 58

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 16

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 4 (2012)

Military branches: Peruvian Army (EjercitoPeruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP (includes naval air, naval infantry, and coast guard)), Peruvian Air Force (FuerzaAerea del Peru, FAP) (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)


Peru’s economy reflects its varied geography – an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru’s coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 2002-06, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Growth jumped to 7.5% in 2007, driven by higher world prices for minerals and metals.

Transnational Issues:

Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru’s November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favour Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru’s shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia’s claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border