Newzealand

 

The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand’s full participation in a number of defence alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.

 

Geography:
Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 S, 174 00 E
People:
Population: 4,327,944 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.4% (male 448,106/female 426,348)

15-64 years: 66.4% (male 1,426,595/female 1,420,643)

65 years and over: 13.3% (male 260,454/female 308,201) (2011 est.)

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: New Zealand

abbreviation: NZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Wellington

geographic coordinates: 41 28 S, 174 51 E

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in March

note: New Zealand is divided into two time zones, including Chatham Island

Communications:
Telephones – main lines in use: 1.87 million (2009)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 5.02 million (2009)
Transportation:
Airports: 122 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 39

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 1 (2012)

Military:
Military branches: New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force (Te Hokowhitu o Kahurangi, RNZAF) (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed until the age of 18; no conscription; 3 years of secondary education required; must be a citizen of NZ, the UK, Australia, Canada, or the US and resident of there for the previous 5 years (2012)

Economy:

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: New Zealand

abbreviation: NZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Wellington

geographic coordinates: 41 28 S, 174 51 E

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in March

note: New Zealand is divided into two time zones, including Chatham Island

Transnational Issues:

Disputes – international: asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
Illicit drugs: significant consumer of amphetamines