Location: Southern Asia, between China and India
Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 84 00 E
Population: 29,890,686 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.6% (male 5,177,264/female 4,983,864)

15-64 years: 61.1% (male 8,607,338/female 9,344,537)

65 years and over: 4.4% (male 597,628/female 681,252) (2011 est.)

Country name: conventional long and short form: Nepal

local long and short form: Nepal

Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Kathmandu

geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E

time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Telephones – main lines in use: 841,700 (2009)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 9.196 million (2009)
Airports: 47 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 11

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 1 (2012)

Military branches: Nepalese Army, Armed Police Force (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for military training; no conscription (2011)


Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world with almost one-third of its population living below the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for three-fourths of the population and accounting for 38% of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Security concerns relating to the Maoist conflict have led to a decrease in tourism, a key source of foreign exchange.


Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower and tourism, areas of recent foreign investment interest. Prospects for foreign trade or investment in other sectors will remain poor, however, because of the small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness, its landlocked geographic location, its civil strife, and its susceptibility to natural disaster.

Transnational Issues:

Disputes – international: joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 square kilometre dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities; approximately 106,000 Bhutanese Lhotshampas (Hindus) have been confined in refugee camps in south-eastern Nepal since 1990
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 74,536 (Bhutan); 15,000 (Tibet/China) (2010)

IDPs: 50,000 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; displacement spread across the country) (2012)