Liberia

 

The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of “direct democracy.” QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism.

 

Geography:
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 17 00 E
People:
Population: 5,613,380 (July 2012 est.)

note: includes 166,510 non-nationals

Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.8% (male 1,104,590/female 1,057,359)

15-64 years:  62.7% (male 2,124,053/female 2,011,226)

65 years and over: 4.6% (male 146,956/female 153,776) (2011 est.)

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

conventional short form: Libya

local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma

local short form: none

Government type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in practice, an authoritarian state
Capital: name: Tripoli

geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Communications:
Telephones – main lines in use: 1.228 million (2009)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 10.9 million (2009)
Transportation:
Airports: 144 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 64

over 3,047 m: 23

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 26

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 1 (2012)

Military:
Military branches: note – in transition; government attempting to staff a new national army with anti-QADAFI militia fighters and former members of QADAFI’s military (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age (2004)

Economy:

The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of GDP, and 60% of public sector wages. Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. Almost all US unilateral sanctions against Libya were removed in April 2004, helping Libya attract more foreign direct investment, mostly in the energy sector.

Transnational Issues:

Libya has claimed more than 32,000 sq. km in south-eastern Algeria and about 25,000 sq. km in the Tommo region of Niger in a currently dormant dispute; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya.