Kyrgyzstan

 

A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of Kyrgyzstan was formally annexed to Russia in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. Kyrgyzstan became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAYEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV. The political opposition organized demonstrations in Bishkek in April, May, and November 2006 resulting in the adoption of a new constitution that transferred some of the president’s powers to parliament and the government.

 

Geography:
Location: Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 75 00 E
People:
Population: 5,496,737 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.3% (male 834,024/female 801,750)

15-64 years:  65.4% (male 1,790,534/female 1,865,521)

65 years and over:  5.3% (male 114,200/female 181,414) (2011 est.)

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic

conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan

local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy

local short form: Kyrgyzstan

former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic
Capital: name: Bishkek

geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Communications:
Telephones – main lines in use: 502,200 (2009)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 5.275 million (2009)
Transportation:
Airports: 28 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 18

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

under 914 m: 3 (2012)

Military:
Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force (includes Air Defence Forces) (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory male military service in the armed forces or Interior Ministry; service obligation – 1 year, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2010)

Economy:

Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity. Following independence, Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the government’s stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995, production began to recover and exports began to increase.

Transnational Issues:

Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas