Ethiopia

 

Geography:
Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E
People:
Population: 91,195,675 (July 2012 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.3% (male 20,990,369/female 21,067,961)

15-64 years: 51% (male 22,707,235/female 23,682,385)

65 years and over:  2.7% (male 1,037,488/female 1,388,301) (2011 est.)

Median age: Total: 16.8 years

male: 16.5 years

female: 17.1 years (2008 est.)

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

conventional short form: Ethiopia

local long form: Ityop’iyaFederalawiDemokrasiyawiRipeblik

local short form: Ityop’iya

former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa

abbreviation: FDRE

Government type: federal republic
Capital: name: Addis Ababa

geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Communications:
Telephones – main lines in use: 908,900 (2009)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 6.517 million (2009)
Transportation:
Airports58 (2012)

Airports – with paved runwaystotal: 17

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2012)

Military:
Military branches: Ethiopian National Defence Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (ETAF) (2011)

note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained in Eritrean possession

Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2011)

Economy:

Ethiopia’s poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture, accounting for almost half of GDP, 60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $350 million in 2006, but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. The war with Eritrea in 1998-2000 and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy, in particular coffee production.

 

In November 2001, Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, and in December 2005 the IMF voted to forgive Ethiopia’s debt to the body. Under Ethiopia’s constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. Drought struck again late in 2002, leading to a 3.3% decline in GDP in 2003. Normal weather patterns helped agricultural and GDP growth recover during 2004-07.

Transnational Issues:

Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission’s (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), which has monitored the 25-km-wide Temporary Security Zone in Eritrea since 2000, is extended for six months in 2007 despite Eritrean restrictions on its operations and reduced force of 17,000; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia’s Ogaden and southern Somalia’s Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; “Somaliland” secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia