Chad

Chad, part of France’s African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels.
Geography:
Location: Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E
People:
Population: 10,975,648 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 46% (male 2,510,656/female 2,441,780)

15-64 years: 51% (male 2,531,896/female 2,960,406)

65 years and over:  2.9% (male 131,805/female 182,402) (2011 est.)

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chad

conventional short form: Chad

local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad

local short form: Tchad/Tshad

Government type: republic
Capital: name: N’Djamena

geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Communications:
Telephones – main lines in use: 31,200 (2011)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 3.666 million (2011)
Transportation:
Airports: 58 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 9

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2012)

Military:
Military branches: Armed Forces: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT), Chadian Air Force (Force Aerienne Tchadienne, FAT), Gendarmerie (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 20 years of age for conscripts, with 3-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)
Economy:
Chad’s primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad’s population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad’s economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects.
Transnational Issues:

Since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions with Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission’s admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries