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Bosnia and Herzegovina’s declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs – supported by neighbouring Serbia and Montenegro – responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a “Greater Serbia.
” In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialled a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14% (male 333,989/female 313,234)
15-64 years: 71% (male 1,655,669/female 1,625,750)
65 years and over: 15% (male 283,233/female 410,288) (2011 est.)
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
former: People’s Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2012)
IDPs: 113,400 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced in 1992-95 war) (2011)
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