Bosnia Herzegovina

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina’s declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs – supported by neighbouring Serbia and Montenegro – responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a “Greater Serbia.

 

” In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialled a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).

 

Geography:
Location: South-eastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E
People:
Population: 3,879,296 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 14% (male 333,989/female 313,234)

15-64 years: 71% (male 1,655,669/female 1,625,750)

65 years and over: 15% (male 283,233/female 410,288) (2011 est.)

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina

local long form: none

local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

former: People’s Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Government type: emerging federal democratic republic
Capital: name: Sarajevo

geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Communications:
Telephones – main lines in use: 955,900 (2011)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 3.171 million (2011)
Transportation:
Airports: 25 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2012)

Military:
Military branches: Bosnia and Herzegovina Armed Forces (OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air and Air Defence Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Zrakoplovstvo i Protuzracna Obrana, ZPO) (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service in the Federation and in the Republika Srpska; conscription abolished January 2006; 4-month service obligation (2010)

Transnational Issues:

Disputes – international: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder final ratification of the 1999 border agreement
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 6,836 (Croatia) (2010)

IDPs: 113,400 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced in 1992-95 war) (2011)