Barbados

 

The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in 1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the 20th century. The gradual Introduction of social and political reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in economic importance.

 

Geography:
Location: Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W
People:
Population:  287,733 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.9% (male 27,127/female 27,127)

15-64 years: 71.3% (male 100,594/female 103,751)

65 years and over:  9.8% (male 10,982/female 17,124) (2011 est.)

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Barbados

Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Bridgetown

geographic coordinates: 13 06 N, 59 37 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Communications:
Telephones – main lines in use: 140,700 (2011)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 347,900 (2011)
Transportation:
Airports: 1 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2012)

Military:
Military branches: Royal Barbados Defence Force: Troops Command, Barbados Coast Guard (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service (younger requires parental consent); no conscription (2009)

Economy:

Historically, the Barbadian economy was dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities. However, production in recent years has diversified into light industry and tourism, with about three-quarters of GDP and 80% of exports being attributed to services. Growth has rebounded since 2003, bolstered by increases in construction projects and tourism revenues – reflecting its success in the higher-end segment.

 

The country enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the region and an investment grade rating which benefits from its political stability and stable institutions. Offshore finance and information services are important foreign exchange earners and thrive from having the same time zone as eastern US financial centres and a relatively highly educated workforce. The government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining state-owned enterprises.

Transnational Issues:

In April 2006, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a decision that delimited a maritime boundary with Trinidad and Tobago and compelled Barbados to enter a fishing agreement limiting Barbadian fishermen’s catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago’s exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UNCLOS challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago’s and Venezuela’s maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela’s claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea