Bangladesh

 

Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh in the 16th century; eventually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India. In 1947, West Pakistan and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955, but the awkward arrangement of a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1,600 km left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied.

 

East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed Bangladesh. A military-backed caretaker regime suspended planned parliamentary elections in January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption; the regime has pledged new democratic elections by the end of 2008. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.

 

Geography:
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E
People:
Population: 161,083,804 (July 2012 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years:  34.3% (male 27,551,594/female 26,776,647)

15-64 years: 61.1% (male 45,956,431/female 50,891,519)

65 years and over: 4.7% (male 3,616,225/female 3,778,119) (2011 est.)

Government:
Country name: conventional long form: People’s Republic of Bangladesh

conventional short form: Bangladesh

local long form: Gana Prajatantri Banladesh

local short form: Banladesh

former: East Bengal, East Pakistan

Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Dhaka

geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E

time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Communications:
Telephones – main lines in use: 1.6 million (2011)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 85 million (2011)
Transportation:
Airports: 18 (2012)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 16

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 4 (2012)

Military:
Military branches: Bangladesh Defence Force: Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force (Bangladesh Biman Bahini, BAF) (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 17-19 years of age for voluntary enlisted military service; Bangladeshi birth and 10th grade education required; initial obligation 15 years (2012)

Economy:

The economy has grown 5-6% over the past few years despite inefficient state-owned enterprises, delays in exploiting natural gas resources, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Garment exports and remittances from Bangladeshis working overseas, mainly in the Middle East and East Asia, fuel economic growth.

Transnational Issues:

Discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, exchange territory for 51 small Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 small Indian exclaves in Bangladesh, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesh resists India’s attempts to fence or wall off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint Bangladesh-India boundary inspection in 2005 revealed 92 pillars are missing; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; 21,000 Burmese Rohingya Muslim refugees reside in two camps in Bangladesh